How does a stepper motor work?

How does a stepper motor work?

In mechanical design, we often use stepper motors, such as scanners, printers, cameras, ATM machines, etc. that are common in life, and the linear motion of the synchronous belt shaft of common machines in factories. What is its working principle?

The working principle of a stepper motor, in general terms, is that one or more sets of coils in the stator are energized in turn, and the current in the coils generates a magnetic field. In order to find a new balance position, the rotor automatically adjusts its position to align with the magnetic field, thereby realizing motion. .

Specifically, the rotor of the stepping motor is a permanent magnet. When the current flows through the stator winding, the stator winding will generate a vector magnetic field, and this magnetic field will drive the rotor to rotate at an angle, so that the direction of a pair of magnetic fields of the rotor and the magnetic field of the stator the same direction. When the vector magnetic field of the stator rotates an angle, the rotor also rotates an angle with the magnetic field. Each time an electrical pulse is input, the motor rotates an angle and moves forward one step. The angular displacement it outputs is proportional to the number of pulses input, as well as the rotational speed and the pulse frequency. If you want to reverse the motor, you just need to change the order in which the windings are energized. Therefore, the rotation of the stepper motor can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses, the frequency and the power-on sequence of each phase winding of the motor.

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